Cogan's syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder involving the eye and inner ear. It affects both young people and adults; In fact, 80% of patients are between the ages of 14 and 47.
Cogan syndrome may present symptoms that affect either the ocular system in 38% of cases, audiovestibular system in 46%, or both in 15%. In most cases, 75% of patients experience ocular and audiovestibular symptoms after 5 months. Common ocular symptoms include pain, light sensitivity, irritation, and decreased vision. On the other hand, common audiovestibular symptoms include sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and a sense of fullness or pressure.
Cogan syndrome's exact cause remains uncertain. However, it seems to occur due to an autoimmune response that targets an unidentified, diffuse autoantigen found in both the inner ear and cornea.
Cogan syndrome affects individuals of all genders and occurs in both young people and adults. However, it is more commonly observed in individuals between the ages of 14 and 47, constituting about 80% of patients.
The diagnosis of Cogan syndrome does not have a standard method and is mainly based on the ocular symptoms, which are often the first to appear. It may take several months before the symptoms affecting the ear become apparent. An audiogram is usually performed to determine the extent of hearing loss. Blood tests are also conducted to evaluate any systemic involvement, and a differential diagnosis is conducted to rule out other diseases with similar symptoms.